scientific-women:

In the annals of history, Hypatia of Alexandria (370-415) is the first female scientist for whom there exists more than sketchy documentation. She is notable because she was a brilliant scientist – well versed in mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy – and well respected by many. She is also notable because she was well-educated at a time when the rigorous education of women was an anomaly. Hypatia had her father, a great believer in education, to thank for her upbringing. In other circumstances she would have lacked the opportunity to live such an unusual life, and her discoveries would have been left to others at a later time.

Over the centuries this story would repeat itself again and again. An academic education in the sciences was rare or inaccessible to most women. In the 17th century, salon discussions or lectures about the sciences were fashionable. Some were exclusively female while others included male members but were run by women. These activities were a substitution for the academies and official scientific societies to which women were still not generally admitted as full members, although they sometimes worked on the periphery. Self-education, especially among the noble classes, was common and women of means were ready consumers of scientific literature and curiosities. High-ranking women with a serious interest in the sciences were able to take advantage of class-based networks that included nobility and royalty, and permitted access to important contemporary scientists such as Descartes and Newton.

Like Hypatia, many women entered the sciences through a relative, as assistants to their fathers, brothers, and husbands. And while many of these women were able to make significant contributions within their fields, the joint nature of their work often led to the exclusion or misattribution of their contributions. Within the tradition of the crafts guild a wife, daughter or niece of a guild master was permitted to learn his trade, and women were granted limited civil rights and guild memberships which permitted them to work more independently. This helps to explain the number of female German astronomers, 14%, during the 17th century. However, ultimately, when women did occupy a niche in science, it would often become masculinized and women’s contributions would be diminished or appropriated.

Christian Harless, a German physician, wrote in 1830, that in the “long standing gap in the history of the natural sciences there has been no historical and evaluative survey of all the women who, from the earliest times until our own, have distinguished themselves in the various sciences,” (cited in The Mind Has No Sex? by Londa Schiebinger, Harvard University Press, 1989). Since the 1970s, with an increasing number of women entering scientific fields, there has been a corresponding interest in the history of women in the sciences. The individuals showcased in this exhibit represent only a tiny percentage of the women who have worked in the sciences from earliest times and for whom there are records. While not comprehensive, the exhibit may spark an appreciation for the contributions of women in these and other areas. May they shine the light of discovery on others.

jamescookjr:

“When I was auditioning for Joffrey. I only had one audition, and the producers and writers were laughing at my performance because I was being so snotty and arrogant. They found it comical. I thought that was good.” —Jack Gleeson

“Jack is gorgeous – a wonderfully sensitive, quiet, intelligent scholar. He’s the antithesis of that character.” —Michelle Fairley

"Jack, who plays Joffrey is such a lovely fellow." --Ian McElhinney

“He’s this really contemplative, erudite, really gorgeous, generous human being, and he plays Joffrey so well.  It’s very disturbing.” —Natalie Dormer

"Jack Gleeson, who plays Joffrey is an absolute sweetheart in real life, you know what I mean. He’s such a brilliant actor. I think he’s a genius." —Mark Addy

“He’s the most polite, lovely, intelligent person in the whole cast! He’s just so humble and everyone loves him. There’s nothing anyone can say bad about Jack. He literally just turns it on. As soon as they go, “Action!” he goes from lovely Jack to the most sadistic, horrible creep on television.” —Sophie Turner

“Jack Gleeson is really a very nice young man, charming and friendly.” —George R.R. Martin

"I kind of wish he would do more television interviews so that people can see what he’s really like, because there is so much hate for Joffrey, I feel protective of Jack now. If I were him, I’d be petrified that people would come up and slap me on the street! I should be his bodyguard." —Sophie Turner

"Jack is actually a very sweet boy and very bright, very intelligent young man with a natural talent." —Charles Dance

"Jack! He’s the coolest. He smokes a pipe, people. Talk about great acting for somebody who’s so different from the part he plays. I love that guy." —Peter Dinklage

oupacademic:

We’re sharing this brain-stumper from David Acheson, author of 1089 and All That: A Journey into Mathematics:

  1. Write down a 3-figure number. Any such number will do, provided the first and last figures differ by two or more.
  2. Now reverse your number, and subtract the smaller 3-figure number from the larger.
  3. Finally, reverse the result of that calculation, and add.
  4. Then the final answer will always be 1089, no matter which number you start with!

(via What’s the Problem with Maths? | OUPblog)

sagansense:

'Family Guy' Wisdom.

(Source: sandandglass)

neutralrnilkmotel:

2sugoi4u:

is this a common american occurrence?

Yes

(Source: videocookies)

mostlycatsmostly:

Mu at Summit Park (by fadedcupid)

alecwoodlight:

firelordzuko:

it’s funny how the most unappreciated character in harry potter is harry potter

i’ve never heard anyone answer the question ‘who’s your favourite harry potter character’ with ‘harry potter’

politicsprepandpearls:

Feminist-a person who supports feminism.

Feminism-the advocacy of women’s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men.

Popular Pups

onceuponaregalduckling:

theblogforadog:

Here are some picture of what some of the most popular dog breeds look like as puppies. 

Australian Shepherd

image

Beagle

image

Boston Terrier

image

Chihuahua

image

Cocker Spaniel

image

Dachshund

image

French Bulldog

image

German Shepherd

image

Golden Retriever 

image

Siberian Husky

image

Labrador Retriever 

image

Pug

image

Miniature Schnauzer 

image

Sheltie

image

Yorkie

image

give me them all.

tags: #puppies

isobelstevenz:

harry potter meme ϟ  ten characters  (10/10) -  molly weasley

mrs. weasley set the potion down on the bedside cabinet, bent down, and put her arms around harry. he had no memory of ever being hugged like this, as though by a mother. the full weight of everything he had seen that night seemed to fall in upon him as mrs. weasley held him to her.

officialunitedstates:

FACT OF THE DAY:  it’s apparently not okay to raise 16,200 seagulls from birth, train them every day in the art of aerial warfare, and then unleash them upon a medium sized township

lumos5000:

THIS IS WHY DONNA’S STORY IS SO TRAGIC BECAUSE SHE GOES FROM THINKING SHE IS NOTHING, TO REALIZING THAT SHE IS IMPORTANT AND SHE DOES MATTER. SHE SAVES THE UNIVERSE WITH THOSE ‘TEMP SKILLS’ THAT SHE DEEMED UNIMPORTANT AT THE START OF THE SERIES. AND WHEN THE DOCTOR WIPES HER MIND, SHE KNOW HOW MUCH SHE WILL LOSE, HOW SHE WILL GO BACK TO THINKING OF HERSELF AS INSIGNIFICANT AND UNIMPORTANT. I THINK SHE WOULD HAVE RATHER DIED THAN LET THAT HAPPEN, BUT THE DOCTOR TAKES THE CHOICE AWAY FROM HER BECAUSE HE SAVES PEOPLE THAT’S WHAT HE DOES. AND I THINK THAT BREAKS HIS HEARTS. 

(Source: clarasnog)

series 4 + scenery